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Neural Networks

Overview: Neural Networks are an information processing technique based on the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The fundamental concept of neural networks is the structure of the information processing system. Composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements or neurons, a neural network system uses the human-like technique of learning by example to resolve problems. The neural network is configured for a specific application, such as data classification or pattern recognition, through a learning process called training. Just as in biological systems, learning involves adjustments to the synaptic connections that exist between the neurons. Neural networks can differ on: the way their neurons are connected; the specific kinds of computations their neurons do; the way they transmit patterns of activity throughout the network; and the way they learn including their learning rate. Neural networks are being applied to an increasing large number of real world problems. Their primary advantage is that they can solve problems that are too complex for conventional technologies -- problems that do not have an algorithmic solution or for which an algorithmic solution is too complex to be defined. In general, neural networks are well suited to problems that people are good at solving, but for which computers generally are not. These problems include pattern recognition and forecasting -- which requires the recognition of trends in data. For further information, see the following references:

Glossary Link - Neural Networks



To Natural Language Processing
To Object Oriented Development


Neural Networks Information on the Internet
IEEE Neural Network Council Home Page Read publications, learn about research, and get information about upcoming conferences.
An Introduction To Neural Networks A light introduction, managers guide, example, and uses of Neural Networks.
Neural Nets Overview by Dr. K. Gurney  Yahoo index of Neural Networks information.
NEuroNet - Software Index of commercial neural net simulators
Will's Technical Page A collection of articles and other technical resources for artificial intelligence (especially data mining and machine learning).
Yahoo - Business and Economy:Companies:
Computers:Software:Artificial Intelligence:Neural Networks 
Yahoo index of Neural Networks information.
Yahoo - Science:Engineering:Electrical Engineering:Neural Networks  Yahoo index of Neural Networks information.
Yahoo - Science:Engineering:Electrical Engineering:Neural Networks:Conferences  Yahoo index of Neural Networks Conferences.

Sponsors of PC AI - Neural Networks Vendors
Specializes in biologically-based computer systems for business and science that learn, adapt and evolve. In a world of accelerating change, systems and solutions must be able to adapt quickly. We build systems that are based upon dynamic natural processes. These powerful solutions are increasingly a part of strategic and tactical systems throughout the world.
Provider of multi-strategy data mining suite PolyAnalyst which features a hybrid Neural Net-GMDH algorithm as one of its engines for automated learning from data.
NeuralWare Inc. NeuralWare is a producer of neural network modelling software for professional applications. Founded in 1987, they are developers of neural network software for the development and deployment of intelligent on-line solutions for commercial, scientific, industrial, and government applications. Their products are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, pulp and paper, food and beverage, chemical processing, marine, materials processing, medical, financial, targeted marketing, credit, and securities.
NeuroDimension is the maker of a leading-edge neural network simulation software product, NeuroSolutions for Windows. This revolutionary product combines a modular, icon-based network design interface with an implementation of advanced learning procedures, such as recurrent backpropagation and backpropagation through time. Some other notable features include C++ source code generation, customized components through DLLs, integration with Microsoft Excel, and Visual Basic accessibility through OLE automation.
QMC provides an advanced generation of PC-based software technologies that interpret, analyze, and configure data for any process in any industry.

Other Neural Networks Vendors
Adaptive Network Solutions Research, Inc. Contains links to Neural Network and Applied Physics sites. www.ansr.com
Alyuda Research, Inc. Alyuda Research, Inc. provides software products and services that empower business analysts, traders and engineers to create forecasts. Its family of tool technologies enables the delivery of a wide range of neural networks based solutions from forecasting tools to corporate data analysis systems.
American Heuristics AHC is a technology transfer company that specializes in the research and development of advanced software technologies and their application to complex technical problems. 
Attrasoft - Neural network shareware software.  Based on the Hopfield neural model and the Boltzmann machine, these products are designed to operate in an environment ranging from 1,000 to 100,000 external (Input/Output) neurons.
California Scientific Software Information on Brainmaker and more.
Cobalt A.I. Software Cobalt A.I. provides programming tools for application development of artificial intelligence systems.
Flexible Intelligence Group The primary objective of Flexible Intelligence Group, LLC. (FIG) is to design, develop, and market independent modules which may be used, in isolation or in combination with systems, to (a) provide computational intelligence to a system or (b) improve the computational intelligence of a system. At present, this requires the development of soft computing modules that integrates techniques such as fuzzy systems, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, and chaos theory. 
Gensym Corporate information, press releases, product descriptions. 
info@gensym.com; service@gensym.com; ftp.gensym.com (
IBM Corporation nninfo@vnet.ibm.com
Information Discovery Implement solutions to industry problems using embedded data mining in the business segments such as direct marketing, banking, retail, insurance, financial services, and more.
Intelligent Machines imi@netcom.com
MarketMiner, Inc. For product information and availability, please contact MarketMiner, Inc. directly.
(info@marketminer.com) Formerly AbTech Corporation.
Corporate information, press releases, product descriptions. 
(info@mathworks.com) (ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub)
Mikuni Berkeley NeuroLab is a neural network library for Extend (a graphical icon- based simulation program) and is an effective tool for understanding, designing, and simulating artificial neural network systems. NeuroLab consists of more than 70 functional blocks and many example models.
Network Cybernetics Product and company information.
NeuralWare Inc. NeuralWare is a producer of neural network modelling software for professional applications. Founded in 1987, they are developers of neural network software for the development and deployment of intelligent on-line solutions for commercial, scientific, industrial, and government applications. Their products are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, pulp and paper, food and beverage, chemical processing, marine, materials processing, medical, financial, targeted marketing, credit, and securities.
NeuSciences Neusciences is a leading developer of packaged neural network software. Their tools enable organisations to embed neural networks and associated techniques into their own products and business applications.
Predictive Dynamix, Inc. Predictive Dynamix provides a comprehensive suite of software tools for commercial data mining applications
Promised Land Technologies Makers of Braincel. www.promland.com/index.html
SPSS Company and product information for SPSS Inc., maker of Neural Connection.
Triant Technologies Product and company information. (mcamp@triant.com)
Virtual Mind Provides neural services on the Internet. www.virtualmind.com
Ward Systems Group Ward Systems Group, Inc. (WSG) is a progressive company that transforms the latest developments in neural networks, genetic algorithms, and artificial intelligence into practical problem solving tools for the business, scientific, and academic environments. The company was established in 1988 and is a pioneer in the development of neural network and genetic algorithm software.

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Article References
Neural Networks: A Short Course  Klimasauskas, C. (1988) PC AI, 2(4), 26.
Practical Side Of Neural Networks: 
Part I
Bailey, D., Thompson, D., and Feinstein, J. (1988) PC AI, 2(4), 33.
Neural Nets On A Personal Computer Schwartz,D. and Jurik, M. (1988) PC AI, 2(4), 37.
Learning In Neural Networks Bayle, A. (1988) PC AI, 2(4), 40.
Darpa's Neural Net Program Johnson, R. (1988) PC AI, 2(4), 49.
Practical Side Of Neural Networks: 
Part II
Bailey, D., Thompson, D., and Feinstein, J. (1989) PC AI, 3(2), 56.
Neural Nets Versus Expert Systems Sherald, M. (1989) PC AI, 3(4), 10.
AI And Medicine Okun, R. (1989) PC AI, 3(4), 49.
Neural Microchips Debut Johnson, R. (1990) PC AI, 4(1), 38.
Pattern Classification Engel, C. and Cran, M. (1990) PC AI, 4(3) 20.
Analyzing Financial Health  Barker, D. (1990) PC AI, 4(3), 24.
Meaningful Neural Network Hardware Johnson, R. (1990) PC AI, 4(3), 42.
They Think, Therefore Etann Hintze, F. (1990) PC AI, 4(5), 62.
Case For Neural Networks Johnson, R. (1990) PC AI, 4(6), 47.
Neural Networks Go Biotech Caudill, M. (1990) PC AI, 4(6), 54.
Applying Neural Networks: Part I: An Overview Of The Series Klimasauskas, C. (1991) PC AI, 5(1), 30.
Applying Neural Networks: Part II: A Walk Through The Application Process Klimasauskas,C. (1991) PC AI, 5(2), 27.
Applying Neural Networks: Part III: Training A Neural Network Klimasauskas, C. (1991) PC AI, 5(3), 20.
Mission Possible - Applications Sherald, M. (1991) PC AI, 5(3), 56.
Applying Neural Networks: Part IV: Improving Performance Klimasauskas, C. (1991) PC AI, 5(4), 34.
Applying Neural Networks: Part V: Integrating A Trained Neural Network Into An Application Klimasauskas, C. (1991) PC AI, 5(5), 36.
Applying Neural Networks: Part VI: Special Topics Klimasauskas, C. (1991) PC AI, 5(6), 46.
AI And The Environment: Neural Networks Analyze Satellite Images Civco, D. (1992) PC AI, 6(1), 43.
Conference Report: Neuro-Nimes 91 Klimasauskas, R. (1992) PC AI, 6(1), 46.
Neural Nets: A Successful AI Technology Keyes, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(3), 18.
Neural Network Design: An Object Oriented Approach Williams, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(3), 23.
Neural Net/ES Hybrid Ace, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(3), 38.
Two Working Neural Nets Lawrence, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(6), 42.
Assessing A Neural Net Burke, L. (1993) PC AI, 7(2), 20.
Interpreting Neural Network Output Garavaglia, S. (1993) PC AI, 7(3), 52.
Neural Nets And Stocks Kean, J. (1993) PC AI, 7(5), 45.
Neural Nets And Gymnastics Sands, W., Shultz, B., and Paine, D. (1994) PC AI, 8(1) , 42.
Fuzzy Logic And Neural Networks Fraleigh, S. (1994) PC AI, 8(3) , 16.
Diagnosing Autism Cohen, I., Sudhalter, V., Landon-Jiminez, D., and Keogh, M. (1994) PC AI, 8(3) , 22.
Neural Nets And Money Management Lewinson, L. (1994) PC AI, 8(3) , 26.
Neural Net Connection Kempka, A. (1994) PC AI, 8(5) , 28.
The Neural Net Connection: Revving Up PC AI, 8(5) , 28.
Lesions In Neural Nets Schmuller, J. (1995) PC AI, 9(2) , 16.
Neural Nets That Create and Discover Thaler, S. (1996) PC AI, 10(3) , 16.
Neural Nets for Image Reconstruction Dwinnell, W. (1996) PC AI, 10(4) , 34.
Self-Training Artificial Neural Networks: Nets, Spreadsheets, and Objects Thaler, S. (1996) PC AI, 10(6) , 32.
Neural Nets and OLE: Showing the Connections Sprague, A. (1997) PC AI, 11(3) , 27.
Neural Networks in Finance: The Importance of Methodology Over Technology Dhar, V. and Stein, R. (1998) PC AI, 12(3) , 16.
Neural Networks for Monitoring, Control, and Optimization Van Buskirk, P. (1998) PC AI, 12(3) , 28.
Neural Networks in the Process Industry Angstenberger, J., Putz, A., and van der Meer, R. (1998) PC AI, 12(3) , 35.
Principal Components and Neural Networks: Maximizing the Use of Information O'Rourke, B. (1998) PC AI, 12(6) , 16.
Public Domain vs. Commercial Tools for Creating Neural Self-Organizing Maps Deboeck, G. (1999) PC AI, 13(1), 27
Aircraft Icing Forecasts from Neural Networks McCann, D. (1999) PC AI, 13(3), 27
Neural Networks Assist in Job Performance: Hiring the Best Candidates at a Lower Cost Williams, W.; Carson, N.; Sherald, M. (1999) PC AI, 13(3), 33
Analyzing Neural Networks Performance: Applying Fuzzy Clustering and Tree Classification O'Rourke, B. (1999) PC AI, 13(3), 37
Exploring MARS: An Alternative to Neural Networks Dwinnell, W. (2000) PC AI, 14(1), 21
Data Enhancement - Filtering for Neural Network Success Dwinnell, W. (2000) PC AI, 14(2), 20
Distributed Intelligence in the B2B Universe: Fuzzy and Neural Connections in Web-Centric Knowledge Management Cox, E. (2000) PC AI, 14(3), 16
Adaptive and Neural Inverse Control: Adaptively Controlling a Ventilator Euliano, N. (2000) PC AI, 14(3), 24
A Technical Description of Holographic/Quantum Neural Cells Sutherland, J. (2000) PC AI, 14(3), 45
Neural Networks Assist the Financial Auditor: Risk Reduction Going Concern Evaluations Sutton, E. (2000) PC AI, 14(6), 37
Neural Networks Fundamentals: A Neural Computing Primer
Hengl, T. (2002) PC AI, 16(3), 32
Buyer's Guide Various. (2002) PC AI, 16(3) 63

Book References
New Ideas on Structure Nervous Systems in Man and Vertebrates Cajal, Santiago, and Ramon Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 201.
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The Computing Neuron Durbin, Miall, and Mitchson Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, pps. 418.
Neural Networks PC Tools Eberhart and Dobbins New York, NY: Academic Press, pps. 414.
Neurobiology of Cognition Eimas and Galaburda Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 250.
Introduction of the Theory of Neural Computation Hertz, Krogh, and Palmer Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, pps. 327.
Neural Network Design and the Complexity of Learning Judd, S. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 150.
Computational Neuroscience Schwartz, E. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pps. 441. ISBN 0-262-19291-8
Neural Computing: Theory and Practice Wasserman, P.D. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, pps. 230.
Computational Neuroscience Weisbuch, G. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, pps. 208.
Introduction to Neural Networks and Expert Systems Harris, M.D. (1985) Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company, Inc, pps. 368. ISBN: 0-8359-3254-0.
Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition Volume 1: Foundations Rumelhart, D.E., McClelland, J.L., and the PDP Research Group (1986) Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 547. ISBN: 0-262-18120-7.
Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition Volume 2: Psychological and Biological Models McClelland, J.L., Rumelhart, D.E., and the PDP Research Group (1986) Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 611. ISBN: 0-262-13218-4.
Neural Network Architectures: An Introduction Dayhoff, J.E. (1990) New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, pps. 259. ISBN: 0-442-20744-1.
Neural Network Experiments on Personal Computers and Workstations. Korn, G.A. (1991) Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pps. 248. ISBN: 0-262-61073-6.
Introduction to Neural Networks and Expert Systems Lawrence, J. (1992) Nevada City, CA: California Scientific Software, pps. 264 pages.
Practical Neural Network Recipes in C++ Master, T. (1993) New York, NY: Academic Press, pps. 493. ISBN: 0-12-479040-2.
Parallel Algorithms: For Digital Image Processing, Computer Vision and Neural Networks Pitas, I. (Ed) (1993) West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, pps. 395. ISBN: 0-471-93566-2.
Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering Strogatz, S.H. (1994) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, pps. 498. ISBN: 0-201-54344-3.
Machine Learning: Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Fuzzy Systems Adeli, H. and Hung, S. (1995) New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc, pps. 211. ISBN: 0-471-01633-0.
Handbook of Neural Computation Fiesler, E. and Beale, R., ed. (1995) Bristol, UK and New York, NY: Oxford University Press and Institute of Physics Publishers, pps. 1096. ISBN: 0-7503-0312--3 and 0-7503-041308.
Virtual Trading: How Any Trader with a PC Can Use the Power of Neural Nets and Expert Systems to Boost Trading Profits Lederman, J. and Klein, R.A. (Eds). (1995) Chicago, IL: Probus Publishing Company, pps. 364. ISBN: 1-55738-812-1.
Advanced Algorithms for Neural Networks: A C++ Sourcebook Masters, T. (1995) New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, pps. 431. ISBN: 0-471-10588-0.
Adaptive Cooperative Systems Beckerman, Martin (1997) New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pps. 427. ISBN: 0-471-01287-4
Understanding Neural Networks Iovine, J. (1998) PROMPT Publications, pps. 166. ISBN 0790611155
Neural Network Learning: Theoretical Foundations Anthony, M. and Bartlett, P. (1999) Cambridge Univ Press, pps. 389. ISBN 052157353X
Neural Networds: Tricks of the Trade Muller, K. and Orr, G. (1999) Springer Verlag, pps. 432. ISBN 3540653112
Neuro-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition: Methods in Soft Computing Pal, S. and Mitra, S. (1999) John Wiley & Sons, pps. 378. ISBN 0471348449
Neural and Adaptive Systems: Fundamentals through Simulations Principe, J., et. al. (1999) John Wiley & Sons, pps. 672. ISBN 0471351679
Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Intelligent Systems Czogala, E. and Leski, J. (2000) Physica Verlag. ISBN 3790812897
Fuzzy Neural Intelligent Systems: Mathematical Foundation and the Applications in Engineering Li, H., et. al. (2000) CRC Press, pps. 392. ISBN 0849323606
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems Solla, S. (ed.), et. al. (2000) MIT Press, pps. 1080. ISBN 0262194503
Neural Networks and Genome Informatics Wu, C., and McLarty, J. (2000) Elsevier Science, pps. 220. ISBN 0080428002

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