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LISP Programming Language

Overview: LISP (LISt Processor) is generally regarded as the language for AI. LISP was formulated by AI pioneer John McCarthy in the late 50's. Although LISP doesn't have a built-in inference mechanism, inference processes can be implemented into LISP very easily. LISP's essential data structure is an ordered sequence of elements called a "list." The elements may be irreducible entities called "atoms" (functions, names or numbers) or they can be other lists. Lists are essential for AI work because of their flexibility: a programmer need not specify in advance the number or type of elements in a list. Also, lists can be used to represent an almost limitless array of things, from expert rules to computer programs to thought processes to system components. Originally, LISP was built around a small set of simple list-manipulating functions which were building blocks for defining other, more complex functions. Today's LISPs have many functions and features which facilitate development efforts. Among contemporary implementations and dialects, have gained acceptance as a standard. A substantial amount of work has also been done in Scheme, a LISP dialect which has influenced the developers of Common LISP. (Reference: Languages Of AI by Joseph Schmuller, September/October 1991, page 21)


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LISP Information on the Internet
Association of LISP Users US LISP users group with annual conference promoting. The association also supports a Usenet newsgroup (comp.org.LISP-users) and formation of inter-vendor standards (comp.std.LISP). Also included are LISP FAQ, archives, implementations, jobs, and humor.
CMU FTP Repository (FAQ) Newsgroups, FAQ, vendors, standards, archives, and more.
Common LISP ANSI Draft Specification Complete copy of the dpANS3 proposed standard. 
Common LISP Hypermedia Server WWW server implemented in Common LISP to explore programming in interactive hypermedia while providing access to complex research programs, such as artificial intelligence systems. The server provides interfaces for document retrieval, email servers, interfaces to systems for inductive rule learning and natural-language question answering.
Extension of Common LISP (Screamer) Support for nondeterministic programming which adds support for backtracking. On top of this nondeterministic substrate, Screamer provides a comprehensive constraint programming language in which one can formulate and solve mixed systems of numeric and symbolic constraints. Together, these two levels augment Common LISP with practically all of the functionality of both Prolog and constraint logic programming languages such as CHiP and CLP(R). 
Free Common LISP implementations Repositories of LISP source code including: CLiCC (Common LISP to C Compiler) generating C-executables from Common LISP application programs; CLISP (Common LISP - CLtL1 + parts of CLtL2) implementation at Munich University; CMU Common LISP (CMU CL); ECoLISP is a Common LISP implementation which compiles LISP functions into C functions that use the C stack and standard procedure call conventions; GNU Common LISP (GCL) Common LISP (CLtL1) based originally on Austin Kyoto Common LISP (AKCL); Kyoto Common LISP (KCL) 
Korea's LISP site
Site provides information and data regarding LISP from Korea.
LISP FAQ Find answers to frequently asked questions about LISP.
LookSmart - General Lisp Programming Resources Lisp resources list.
RUNIX Lisp and Common Lisp This new project has as its main aim of providing information about Lisp for Russian programmers. Much of this site is in Russian
XLISP Several downloadable versions of XLISP for IBM PC (and other MSDOS machines), Atari ST, and Macintosh. XLISP, developed by David Betz, are distributed free of charge. 
Yahoo - LISP Programming Language Emacs LISP, Franz LISP, Macintosh, Association of LISP Users, Usenet and FAQ. 

Sponsors of PC AI - LISP Vendors
Developer of ANSI-standard CLOS programming tools which include: Allegro Common LISP, Allegro Common LISP for Windows, CLIM 2.0, and Lucid to Allegro conversion tools. (info@franz.com) 

Other LISP Vendors
Autodesk Visual LISP(TM), a new programming language from Autodesk Inc., extends the capabilities of the AutoLISPr programming language by providing ease-of-use and development, performance, Microsoft(R) Windows integration and improved software modularity and security features. Visual LISP is built with Autodesk's ObjectARX(R) object-oriented technology. 
Digitool Macintosh Common LISP, FAQ, press releases, and more 
Experienced in symbolic processing, electronic publishing. Information includes product and service information, applications, and more. (resources-us@software.globalgraphics.com) 
Gold Hill Product information, service and support contracts, and more
Formerly Blackboard Technology Group that specialized in software development using blackboard technology. Products including Generic Blackbaord Builder, NetGBB, ChalkBox, GBB Runtime and a GBB demonstraton application.
(413)256-8990; (800)577-8990. 
Find product information on Derive and muLISP90.

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Article References
An XLISP Tutorial Betz, D. (1985) Byte, 10(3), 211-236. 
muLISP (Review) Aguiar, S. (1987) PC AI 1(2), 57. 
Pattern Matching With Lisp Brittain, S. (1987) PCAI 1(3), 34. 
Pattern Matching With LISP Brittain, S. (1987) PC AI, 1(4), 34. 
Languages of AI - Tools of the Trade Schmuller, J. (1991) PC AI, 5(5), 8. 
Whatever Happened to LISP Rasmus, D. (1991) PC AI, 5(5), 21. 
Overview: Languages Schmuller, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(5), 7-9. 
LISP and Statistics: A New Domain for the Oldest AI Language Schmuller, J. (1992) PC AI, 6(5), 40-43. 
LISP-Based Scheduling: 
  • Ashland's Crude Oil System
  • Warner, M. (1993) PC AI, 7(5), 25-27. 
    The Common LISP Interface Manager: 
  • GUIS and Applications
  • Richardson, C., Meldrum, C., and McKay, S. (1993) PC AI, 7(5), 38-40. 
    The Common LISP Interface Manager: 
  • Architecture
  • Richardson, C., Meldrum, C., and McKay, S. (1994) PC AI, 8(2), 34-35, 40. 
    LISP in the Process Industries: 
  • by Lewinson, L (1994) PC AI, 8(5), 22-25. 

    Book References
    So tightly bound is LISP to AI that several well-known AI texts (Winston, 1977; Charniak and McDermott, 1986; Charniak, Riesbeck, and McDermott, 1987) are also textbooks on LISP. The first commercial PC implementation of LISP, Gold Hill's Golden Common LISP, appeared in 1984. Introductory books on LISP have been written by Touretzky (1984), Winston and Horn (1989), Friedman and Felleisen (1988), and Wilensky (1984, 1985). Three installments of Hofstader's "Metamagical Themas" series in Scientific American introduced LISP and are reprinted in a collection of these columns (Hofstader, 1986). Dybvig's (1987) book is a highly readable introduction to Scheme. For an in-depth look at LISP and computational linguistics, see Gazdar and Mellish (1989a). (Reference: LANGUAGES OF AI by Joseph Schmuller, September/October 1991, page 21)
    Complete LISP-Bibliography Herbert Stoyan University of Erlangen D-852 Erlangen, Germany - 
    100's of entries. 
    Search: Enter keywords... 

    Amazon.com                       logo
    Common LISP the Language
    (2nd Edition)
    Contains the abstract by Guy L. Steele, Thinking Machines, Inc., Digital Press. 
    Recent Books on LISP (17) On-line and published books. Source code printed in the selected books can also be downloaded. 
    Handbook Of Artificial Intelligence, 
    Vol 1, 2, 3
    Avron Barr & Edward Feigenbaum, 1981, Willam Kaufmann, Inc 
    A Gentle Introduction to Symbolic Computation Touretzky, D. (1983) New York: Harper and Row, pps 384 
    LISPCraft Wilensky, R. (1984) New York: W. W. Norton, pps 385 
    Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Charniak, E. and McDermott, D. (1986) Reading MA: Addison-Wesley 
    Artificial Intelligence Programming (2nd) Charniak, E. Riesbeck, C., McDermott, D. (1987) Reading MA: Addison-Wesley 
    The Scheme Programming Language Dybvig, R. (1987) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall 
    The Little LISPer Friedman, D. and Felleisen, M. (1988) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 
    Natural Language Processing in LISP Gazdar, G. and Mellish, C. (1989) Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley 
    LISP Winston, P. and Horn, B. (1989) Reading MA: Addison-Wesley, pps 434 
    LISP-STAT Tierney, L. (1990) New York: W. W. Norton, pps 397 
    LISP and Symbolic Computation Kessler, R. and Talcott, C. (1992) Vol 5 No 3, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pps 287 
    Encyclopedia Of Artificial LISP Stuart C. Shapiro, 1992, Wiley and Sons, page 819-842. 
    Encyclopedia Of Artificial Intelligence (Bibliography - 61 Refs) Stuart C. Shapiro, 1992, Wiley and Sons, page 841-842. 
    Artificial Intelligence (3rd) P. Winston, (1992) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pps 737 
    Object-Oriented Common Lisp Slade, S. (1997) Prentice Hall, pps. 425. ISBN 0136059406
    Visual Lisp: A Guide to Artful Programming Kreiker, P. (2000) Delmar Publishing, pps. 384. ISBN 0766815498

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