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while the ball player does. The ball player can research the topic of trajectory estimation and transfer that subconscious ability to the conscious mind, possibly improving his performance. The ball player, discovering the knowledge himself or use the conscious knowledge acquired by someone else, would learn that all projectiles travel in a parabolic fashion defined by the equation ax2 + bx + c. That equation represents the conscious equivalent of the formula used by the ball player's subconscious to catch the ball. With this equation, the ball player can now discover the trajectory of other projectiles such as a rocket or a bullet.
Self-awareness is the second half of the philosophic
plateau. Self-awareness is the ability of a being to classify itself, and question its existence. As with the entire philosophic plateau, currently only humans have this ability. The dog does not know it is a dog, it does not know it is anything - all it knows is that it is there. Humans, on the other hand question their existence with questions such as: "do I exist?" For an artificial being to be considered operating at this level, it would have to pose, and try to answer questions about its existence.
As a person stands at a street corner watching cars
pass by, whether he realizes it or not, is calculating the cars speed and estimating its path. This estimate is applied as a ratio between the car's velocity, and the velocity at which the person's neck and eyes move. This is how the person is able to rotate his head in order to follow the car as it passes. When a lion is hunting its prey, it estimates the velocity and course of its prey, both before its initial attack and continually during its chase.


There are many levels within each intelligence plateau.
Table 1 shows just a few general examples of both organic and inorganic beings and the plateau level at which they belong. These examples will change in the future as AI algorithms improve.
People should not be surprised that plants and
one-celled organisms are considered intelligent, based on our definition of intelligence. While a tree is not as intelligent as an insect or an animal, trees and other plants often grow in the direction of a light source, and trees, which grow on a graded surface, figure out how to grow perpendicular to a level surface. Plants interpret their environment, and change their growing patterns based on this interpretation.

The Room

According to John Searle's Chinese Room Argument,
intelligent thought from a computer is unlikely, or even impossible. Searle states that if a person uses a rulebook to decipher a Chinese message, and then spits out a response recommended by the rulebook in Chinese, the person is doing little more than shuffling around symbols, which is what a computer does. While this theory is correct, Searle is looking at the problem incorrectly.
First let us define what a rulebook is: A rulebook is a
compilation of predetermined relationships created by an intelligent being. Searle decided to focus on the relationship between the person, the input, and the rulebook, which requires very little intelligence to discover. If the person does not understand Chinese, the person only needs to understand the relationship between the Chinese of interest and the

rulebook. In other words, the person only understands how to convert the input to the desired output by using the rulebook. If this is how a computer works however, then there is not much possibility of it understanding Chinese, and therefore displaying human intelligence.
There are other relationship that are taking place, the ones
encompassed in the rulebook. These relationships exist between the words of a sentence. Take the sentence "What is the color of John's dog?" To match the pattern in this sentence to its twin in the rulebook, in the manner Searle proposed, brown is returned as the answer but the rulebook did not understand the sentence to answer the question. However, if we determine that the dog relates to John by possession, and that color attribute relates to the dog, then we understand the question, and can answer it without a rulebook, assuming the answer is known.
If the person or computer creates the relationship between
the input and rulebook, there is no reason why other relationships are not possible, such as those pertaining to the words of the sentence. John Searle's argument refutes the ability of a computer to obtain intelligence by ignoring the truly intelligent relationships that are contained in the rulebook, and focusing in on only the rudimentary relationship between the input and the rulebook.


Although often thought of as a sign of intelligence, in many
ways, emotion is the opposite of intellect. When a being makes a decision, it is influenced by intellect and emotion. Emotion, any internal mental action that hinders a being from thinking logically, includes concepts such as passion, lust, anxiety, fear and anger. By this definition, love, hate, happiness, and sadness are not considered emotions; rather they are considered states - the result of a data compilation. Intellect is orderly, rational, reasonable and logical thought that hinders emotional thought.

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