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come from actions, then a problem is a reason for action. While we are alive, our body is always in action, and therefore solving a problem. Even the most basic of human actions such as breathing and locomotion solves the problems of homeostasis and travel.
Using this information to develop a logical snapshot, we
define a human as a being that recognizes discrepancies between its current state, and its optimal state, and through action resolves these discrepancies. Now that the fundamental principals of a human have been defined and a goal for an artificial being has been created, we need a yardstick by which we can measure our progress to our goal.


Developing a yardstick requires the development of a
theory to intelligence. A definition of intelligence is to an intelligent system, what a definition of value is to an economic system, without it, there is no system. The theories or definitions describing intelligence have always been weak, focusing on a being's ability to learn or understand. We will focus on what intelligence is: the ability of a being to discover and manipulate relationships between itself, events, and objects in the real world.
Returning to the notion of a problem, what causes a
problem? Discrepancies are conflicts in the relationships between a current and optimal state. If we exist to resolve discrepancies, and these discrepancies are conflicts in relationships, then beings exist to discover and manipulate relationships. Therefore, a being's ability and efficiency at discovering and manipulating these relationships determines that beings intelligence level.
While walking down a road, there are hundreds of
relationships being monitored and manipulated every second. These relationships include: your feet in relation to the ground, your current position in relation to the destination, and your body in relation to objects around you such as cars, and buildings. Consider the scenario of writing a letter to a business associate. The fact that a letter is written assumes there is a relationship between the writer and the other person. During the letter writing process, the writer is constantly monitoring relationships such as: the words used in relation to the actual thoughts, the hand's position in relation to the pen and paper, and the writing in relation to how the receiver of the letter will interpret it.
There is also a relationship between the interpretation
of the person who receives the letter and its intended meaning. A misunderstanding in communication, whether written or spoken is due to a flaw in a relationship. This flaw can be due to a bad relationship between the communicated word or idea, and the receiver's interpretation of that word or idea.

Intelligence Scale

To use intelligence as a yardstick, we must develop a
method for its measure. Based on our definition above, every living being, from ameba to human has some degree of intelligence. A species' intelligence is determined by its location on an intelligence scale, which is subdivided into five plateaus.

1. Logic
2. Movement
3. Communication
4. Mathematics
5. Philosophy

Logic - the basis of all intelligent thought and therefore problem solving. To be considered intelligent, a being must have the ability to behave logically. The use of logic to solve problems does not guarantee a correct result; it only guarantees a consistent one. An action performed using only logic is nearly identical each time it is required. It is difficult to determine if logic should supersede the next plateau, which is movement. However, most movement is logical, and therefore requires the logic plateau as a foundation.

Movement - the ability to navigate a 3D space, either moving through self-propulsion, or using an external propulsion system. When a being performs locomotion, it establishes a goal location and constantly deter-mines its position and its relationship to the surrounding environment and its goal destination. Since an accurate bearing is required for intelligent movement, the being needs to analyze impulses from the senses.
Touch - This most primitive sense for movement is fundamental to collision detection. The ability of a being to detect a collision, reevaluate its situation, compensate, and continue to move on to its goal destination is an example of the most basic locomotion. A simple example of this is an Ameba's ability to detect and engulf its food with pseudo pods.
Sight - This second sense is fundamental to collision avoidance. A being uses sight to evaluate and adjust its movement before entering a new 3D space. The goal of sight-based movement is to avoid contact with external objects.
Hearing, smell, and taste - These senses, while not specifically designed for navigation, do provide position reinforcement - estimating one's

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