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The Art of Intelligence
A Theory of Intelligent Thought
By Paul F. Troncone
Artificial Intelligence
The Greeks called this idea Theos Ek Mechanes, and in
Latin, it was Deus Ex Mechina. The concept of creating an artificial automated system is almost as old as the written word. In the past sixty years, it is closer to reality. Although the field of Artificial Intelligence has made great strides, it still lacks a crucial concept - a solid theory of intelligence that includes a definition of intelligence, tangible goals, and a method for their measure. While not required to construct an intelligent application, a theory of intelligence is important for the AI field to progress. As an analogy, the Wright brothers did not need a theory of lift to create an airplane, but it allowed them to succeed by design rather than by chance. The following theory enables the reader to view intelligent system problems from a different prospective, and more importantly, consider intelligence as a series of ever changing relationships, rather than just the analyzing of facts and data.

The Goal

AI researchers indicate the ultimate goal of AI research is
creating a fully automated artificial human being. While sounding fantastic, what does this statement really tell us? Let us look at a similar hypothetical situation. What if we could go back a hundred years and ask the world's top scientists of that time to design and build a 747 jumbo jet, without supplying any additional information. The scientists could not build it due to a lack of tangible goals. The scientist might ask questions such as: what is a 747? What does a 747 do? All of these questions attempt to make the goal more tangible. This same problem plagues the field of AI. Stating the goal of AI as the search for an artificial human means nothing without first understanding what a human being is. As with the scientists and
the jet, they would not know if they built an airplane, if they did not first know what one was. We must understand the human before we can create the artificial human.
One approach to understanding the human, which can
be simply stated but not so simply answered, is to ask, "Why do we exist?" Asking this question of thirty people would likely generate thirty different answers, ranging from serving God, to propagating the species, to creating art, to paying taxes. While these responses are partially correct, they are too specific to fully answer the question. These responses, which resemble tasks rather than reasons for existence, do have a common thread; they are all solutions to a problem. Paying taxes solves the problem of government funding. The service to God answers the need for a belief in a higher being. Creating art eliminates boredom and satisfies the need for self-expression. Propagating the species is the answer to human survival.
Life's daily activities are all a form of problem solving.
Why we wake up in the morning, "live" during the day, and eventually return to sleep at night are all part of the solution to the current problem. Everything we create or do helps us on our journey to solve the problem of life. Every building, tool, machine, theory and device is specifically created to make the journey through life easier and more efficient. This of course leads to the question, "what is a problem?"

What is a Problem?

Problems are commonly defined as a discrepancy
between the current and an optimal state or situation. The discrepancy is what causes the problem, and is not actually the problem. The problem solutions are the result of some action and most actions are in the pursuit of a solution to a problem. If the reason we exist is to solve problems, and those solutions

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